The Gibeon Pool Stratigraphy

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Personal Seals



Gibeon information is unusable on the Stratigraphy page since all but a few of the handles were excavated from a pool (rock-cut, circular, about 11.5m (38') in diameter with a spiral staircase carved into its side; see photo at the bottom of this page) where seal types from different chronological periods may have been mixed; however, if the pool was filled in a relatively consistent manner over a long chronological period (~100 years for example) instead of being filled all at once or sporadically, then it may resemble a stratigraphical time capsule for dating the LMLK seal types.  In the 3-dimensional graph below, a clear distinction in seal types can be seen between handles found above/below ~8.3 meters (the probable time period of Sennacherib's campaign).  Also note the following points:

  1. An "MSH" handle was found at a depth of 2.3m
  2. Jars inscribed with "GBON" were found in the 4.6m-7.6m range.
  3. LMLK handles found in the Pool depth range 0.5-3.0m correspond to post 7-B strata (Division 1 in the graph below)

  4. LMLK handles found in the Pool depth range 3.5-8.3m correspond to the 7-B stratum (Division 2 in the graph below)

  5. Note:  The 7.8-8.8m range contains the most overlapping of LMLK types.
  6. LMLK handles found in the Pool depth range 8.3-13.5m correspond to the 8-A stratum (Division 3 in the graph below)

  7. Note:  Seven handles with personal seals were found in the 6.5m-11.8m range.
  8. Two S2DR handles (ID# 532 & 541) were found at 9.8-10.3m but they are not included anywhere on this page since none are listed on the Stratigraphy page & it is uncertain whether they belong to the x2D, x2T, or some other rare series of LMLK seals

Note:  The spiral staircase goes down to about 10.7m (35') at a small platform, but the total depth of the pool is about 25m (82').

Note:  In the graph above, the X-axis represents theoretical divisions centered around the key depths of 4.6m & 8.3m.  Rows in the chart below are sorted & colored the same way they are on the Stratigraphy page assuming similar chronological divisions.  Although handles with concentric circles (CC) but without LMLK impressions are included in the graph above, they are not listed in the chart below.  PPP data represents LMLK pithoi handles; all the others are Type 484.

G2T I.918, 62-30-1140 very shallow Plus Mark
G2T 75, S.5, 60-13-49 0.5m Circles
H2D 253, S.56, 60-13-108 2.1-3.0m  
M2D 105, S.21, 60-13-104 1.42m  
M2D 106, S.22, 60-13-89 2.5m  
x2U (none)    
x4L (none)    
x4C (none)    
G2T 412, S.149 6.5-6.6m Circles
G2T 414, S.151, 60-13-116 6.5-6.6m  
G2T 453, S.166, 60-13-117 6.6-7.3m  
Z2T 79, S.9, 60-13-103 4.0-4.3m  
Z2T 481, S.184, 60-13-120 7.3-7.6m  
Z2T 501, S.199, 60-13-123 7.8-8.3m  
H2D 318, S.88, (lost) 4.6-5.0m Circles
H2D 337, S.91, 60-13-112 5.0-5.3m  
H2D 356, S.104, 60-13-47 5.3-5.8m Circles
H2D 397, S.134, 60-13-82 5.8-6.5m  
H2D 411, S.147, 60-13-46 6.5-6.6m Circles
H2D 416, S.153, 60-13-83 6.5-6.6m  
H2D 456, S.169, 60-13-84 6.6-7.3m  
H2D 457, S.170, 60-13-85 6.6-7.3m  
H2D 459, S.172, 60-13-119 6.6-7.3m  
H2D 488, S.191, 60-13-122 7.6-7.8m  
H2D 498, S.196A, 60-13-86 7.8-8.3m  
M2D 486, S.189, 60-13-90 7.6-7.8m  
M2D 487, S.190, 60-13-91 7.6-7.8m  
M2D 499, S.197 7.8-8.3m Circles
S2DW 293, S.73, 60-13-94 4.45-4.6m  
S2DW 409, S.145, 60-13-48 6.5-6.6m Circles
S2DW 415, S.152, 60-13-56 6.5-6.6m Circles
S2DW 417, S.154, 60-13-54 6.5-6.6m Circles
S2DW 454, S.167, 60-13-95 6.6-7.3m  
S2DW 485, S.188, 60-13-96 7.6-7.8m  
Z2D 268, S.60, 60-13-110 3.5-4.45m  
Z2D 355, S.103, 60-13-113 5.3-5.8m  
Z2D 367, S.116, 60-13-98 5.3-5.8m  
Z2D 480, S.183, 60-13-99 7.3-7.6m  
Z2D 489, S.192, 60-13-100 7.6-7.8m  
Z2D 490, S.193, 60-13-55 7.6-7.8m Circles
Z2D 500, S.198, 60-13-51 7.8-8.3m Circles
M2U 294, S.74, 60-13-111 4.45-4.6m  
H4L 336, S.90, 60-13-75 5.0-5.3m  
H4L 455, S.168, 60-13-79 6.6-7.3m  
H4L 482, S.185 7.3-7.6m  
H4L 491, S.194, 60-13-50 7.6-7.8m Circles
M4L 335, S.89 5.0-5.3m  
x4L 353, S.101, 60-13-76 5.3-5.8m  
Z4CI 483, S.186, 60-13-73 7.6-7.8m  
H2D 555, S.227, 60-13-88 10.7-11.8m  
H2D 563, S.229 11.8-13.5m  
M2D 520, S.210, 60-13-92 9.0-9.8m  
M2D 522, S.212, 60-13-44 9.0-9.8m Circles
Z2D 507, S.201, 60-13-101 8.3-8.8m  
Z2D 514, S.205, 60-13-126 8.8-9.0m  
Z2D 531, S.218 9.0-10.0m  
Z2D 540, S.222, 60-13-102 10.0-10.3m  
H2U 521, S.211, 60-13-87 9.0-9.8m  
H2U 530, S.217, 60-13-127 9.8-10.0m  
M4L pithos 542, S.224, 60-13-78 10.0-10.3m  
S4L 509, S.203, 60-13-77 8.3-8.8m  
M4C pithos 523, S.213, 60-13-74 9.0-9.8m  
Z4CY pithos 515, S.206 8.8-9.0m  

Here is the actual pool (courtesy of BiblePlaces Dotcom):

At Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; & God said, "Ask!  What shall I give you?"--1Kings 3:5
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This page was created on June 15, 2002, & last updated on June 6, 2004