LMLK--Credits & Gratitude

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Personal Seals


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This website would never have been created were it not for the teaching of God's faithfulness by Dr. Gene Scott®.

The original source of information for this website was from private correspondence with archaeologist & epigrapher, Robert Deutsch.

Thanks to Andrew G. Vaughn for his landmark book, "Theology, History, and Archaeology in the Chronicler's Account of Hezekiah", which provided a comprehensive bibliography, exhaustive corpus, & great deal of original LMLK content to inspire this website.

Although he is credited in Vaughn's book, Gabriel Barkay deserves special thanks for his contribution to the study of LMLK jar handles in particular & Biblical archaeology in general.

Thanks to Amihai Mazar for producing "Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 37 & 42", & for encouraging the development of this website by contibuting photos of Timnah handles.

Thanks to David Ussishkin for allowing his incredible Lachish photos to be used!

Thanks primarily to William Tyndale for bringing the Bible into the English language (& for that matter, popularizing/standardizing English), but thanks also to The Bible Gateway for providing texts quoted herein.

Thanks to K.C. Hanson for providing Daniel David Luckenbill's translation of Sennacherib's prism.

Thanks to Christian Classics Ethereal Library's 'Works of Flavius Josephus' for providing his text.

Thanks to The Herodotus Website in the UK for providing his text.

Thanks to Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton for his 1851 translation of the Septuagint.

Thanks to Todd Bolen of BiblePlaces Dotcom for providing modern photos of Palestine.

Thanks to Hershel Shanks & The Biblical Archaeology Society for publishing BAR magazine, which is a wonderful bridge between the world of scholars/archaeologists & ordinary folk who find Biblical studies a fascinating pastime.

Thanks to Bruce Zuckerman & Marilyn Lundberg of the West Semitic Research Project for donating the first LMLK handle photo for display on this website.

Thanks to Nancy Lapp for providing information/references on pottery.

Thanks to Paul Jacobs for clarifying information on the jars excavated at Rimmon (Tel Halif).

Thanks to Joseph Aviram, director of The Israel Exploration Society, for allowing a multitude of photos to be used from their publications, thereby enhancing the usefulness of this website.

Super-duper extra-special thanks to Ruth Ohm, former curator of the Bade Institute at the Pacific School of Religion for allowing their entire collection of artifacts excavated from Nasbeh to be examined & photographed.

Thanks to Robin Knauth of Lycoming College for contributing information on the construction of the Hebrew word "LMLK" & for promoting the usefulness of this website in her syllabi.

Thanks to Jonathan Tubb, assistant keeper at the British Museum, for qualifying their MMST handles, providing an enlarged photo of RAEL #273, & searching for Olga Tufnell's handles.

Thanks to Felicity Cobbing of the The Palestine Exploration Fund for providing beautiful color photos of their handles & documenting their associated inventory notes.

Thanks to Eilat Mazar for re-examining handles published in "Qedem 29" from Jerusalem.

Thanks to Michael Welch for allowing his handles to be examined & photographed for publication herein, for correcting numerous typos herein, & for his endless encouragement of the study of the LMLK phenomenon.

Thanks to Ron Tappy & Karen Bowden Cooper at the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary for allowing their handles from Tell Beit Mirsim, Gibeah, & Nasbeh to be examined.

Thanks to Shannon White, Courtney Titus, & Alex Pezatti at the University of Pennsylvania Museum for allowing their handles & documentation archives from the Gibeon & Beth Shemesh excavations to be examined & photographed.

Thanks to Diana Franzusoff Peterson at the Magill Library for allowing their handle & plaster casts of stamps from Beth Shemesh to be examined & photographed.

Thanks to Ze'ev Herzog & Lily Singer-Avitz for contributing photos of Arad handles.

Thanks to Irit Ziffer, curator of the Eretz Israel Museum, for contributing photos of Arad & Lachish handles.

Thanks to Melody Knowles & Homer Ashby of the McCormick Theological Seminary for allowing their handles & documentation archives from the Beth Zur excavation to be examined & photographed.

Thanks to Steven Collins of the Museum of Archaeology & Biblical History in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for allowing their handles to be examined & photographed.

Thanks to Othmar Keel of the Bible+Orient Museum at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland for contributing photos of their handles.

Thanks to Susan Braunstein & Stacey Traunfeld of the Jewish Museum for providing photos of their handles for statistical evaluation.

Thanks to the anonymous collector in Boston for contributing handle photos, & for noticing paleographical differences in the Kaf letters on several of the seals.

Thanks to David Livingston for providing info about the handle his team found at Khirbet Nisya, & for allowing its photo to be used herein.

Thanks to Jean-Baptiste Humbert at the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Francaise for providing info about their handle found at Karmel (el-Khalil).

Thanks to Rabbi Shaul Shimon Deutsch of The Living Torah Museum for contributing photos of his institution's handles.

Thanks to Herb Stearns for bringing the LMLK postage stamps to the attention of this website, & for contributing photos of his handles.

Thanks to Bonni-Dara Michaels, Collections Curator at the Yeshiva University Museum, for contributing photos of their handle.

Thanks to David Amit at the Israel Antiquities Authority for providing details on the locations of several obscure sites listed on the Geography page.

Thanks to Rotem Hofman of BibleWalks Dotcom for providing firsthand research on Khirbet Sharta.

Thanks to Meindert Dijkstra of Utrecht University Netherlands for making an important correction to the Personal Seals corpus, & for bringing attention to the Chephirah handle(s).

Thanks to Karel Vriezen of Utrecht University Netherlands for providing info about the Chephirah handle(s), & for allowing its photo to be used herein.

Thanks to Cindy Carlson of the Institute for Creation Research for providing the text of their museum's placard.

Thanks to Steven Sanchez of Emmaus Bible College for providing a Ramat Rahel handle photo.

Thanks to Jurg Eggler at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland for cross-checking the handle corpus in February 2012.

Visit your local public libraries to support freedom, culture, & self-learning!  Thanks to the following California libraries for stocking many of the rare excavation reports & archaeological journals listed in the Bibliography section of the Publications page:

This website was built by, & is managed by, the curator/steward of the Redondo Beach collection & author of the book, "LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1".

"May the good LORD provide atonement for everyone who prepares his heart to seek God."--2Chronicles 30:18-19
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This page was created on January 22, 2002, & last updated on February 18, 2012