- Hebrew letters on the seals: Het-Bet-Resh-Nun
- Note:  Although all of the LMLK HBRN seals were scriptio defectiva, all of the Old Testament usages of Hebron were plene (Het-Bet-Resh-Vau-Nun) except for 4 verses (Numbers 3:27, Numbers 26:58, 2Samuel 2:1, & 1Chronicles 12:38), which are distinguished in the Bible quotes below with "(sd)" for scriptio defectiva
- Strong's Concordance number: 2275
- Goodrick/Kohlenberger's Concordance number: 2496
- Translations: alliance, association, community, confederacy, friendship, league, society, unity
Click on any of the drawings to see photos of actual impressions!
17_Arise, walk in the land through its length and its width, for I give it to you."
18_Then Abram moved his tent, and went and dwelt by the terebinth trees of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and built an altar there to the LORD.
1_Sarah lived one hundred and twenty-seven years; these were the years of the life of Sarah.
2_So Sarah died in Kirjath Arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan, and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her.
... 19_And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah, before Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.
20_So the field and the cave that is in it were deeded to Abraham by the sons of Heth as property for a burial place.
27_Then Jacob came to his father Isaac at Mamre, or Kirjath Arba (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac had dwelt.
28_Now the days of Isaac were one hundred and eighty years.
13_And Israel said to Joseph, "Are not your brothers feeding the flock in Shechem? Come, I will send you to them." So he said to him, "Here I am."
14_Then he said to him, "Please go and see if it is well with your brothers and well with the flocks, and bring back word to me." So he sent him out of the Valley of Hebron, and he went to Shechem.
18_And the sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. And the years of the life of Kohath were one hundred and thirty-three.
19_And the sons of Kohath by their families: Amram, Izehar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
... 27_From Kohath came the family of the Amramites, the family of the Izharites, the family of the Hebronites (sd), and the family of the Uzzielites; these were the families of the Kohathites.
21_So they went up and spied out the land from the Wilderness of Zin as far as Rehob, near the entrance of Hamath.
22_And they went up through the South and came to Hebron; Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the descendants of Anak, were there. (Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)
23_Then they came to the Valley of Eshcol, and there cut down a branch with one cluster of grapes; they carried it between two of them on a pole. They also brought some of the pomegranates and figs.
58_These are the families of the Levites: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites (sd), the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, and the family of the Korathites. And Kohath begot Amram.
3_Therefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying,
4_"Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel."
5_Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, gathered together and went up, they and all their armies, and camped before Gibeon and made war against it.
... 22_Then Joshua said, "Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings to me from the cave."
23_And they did so, and brought out those five kings to him from the cave: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.
... 35_They took it on that day and struck it with the edge of the sword; all the people who were in it he utterly destroyed that day, according to all that he had done to Lachish.
36_So Joshua went up from Eglon, and all Israel with him, to Hebron; and they fought against it.
37_And they took it and struck it with the edge of the sword--its king, all its cities, and all the people who were in it; he left none remaining, according to all that he had done to Eglon, but utterly destroyed it and all the people who were in it.
38_Then Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to Debir; and they fought against it.
39_And he took it and its king and all its cities; they struck them with the edge of the sword and utterly destroyed all the people who were in it. He left none remaining; as he had done to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, as he had done also to Libnah and its king.
21_And at that time Joshua came and cut off the Anakim from the mountains: from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, from all the mountains of Judah, and from all the mountains of Israel; Joshua utterly destroyed them with their cities.
22_None of the Anakim were left in the land of the children of Israel; they remained only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod.
7_And these are the kings of the country which Joshua and the children of Israel conquered on this side of the Jordan, on the west, from Baal Gad in the Valley of Lebanon as far as Mount Halak and the ascent to Seir, which Joshua gave to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their divisions,
8_in the mountain country, in the lowlands, in the Jordan plain, in the slopes, in the wilderness, and in the South--the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites:
9_the king of Jericho, one; the king of Ai, which is beside Bethel, one;
10_the king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one;
13_And Joshua blessed him, and gave Hebron to Caleb the son of Jephunneh as an inheritance.
14_Hebron therefore became the inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this day, because he wholly followed the LORD God of Israel.
15_And the name of Hebron formerly was Kirjath Arba (Arba was the greatest man among the Anakim).
Due to the significant differences between the Septuagint & Masoretic traditions of this text, click here for a side-by-side comparison.
6_'"And he shall dwell in that city until he stands before the congregation for judgment, and until the death of the one who is high priest in those days. Then the slayer may return and come to his own city and his own house, to the city from which he fled."'
7_So they appointed Kedesh in Galilee, in the mountains of Naphtali, Shechem in the mountains of Ephraim, and Kirjath Arba (which is Hebron) in the mountains of Judah.
8_And on the other side of the Jordan, by Jericho eastward, they assigned Bezer in the wilderness on the plain, from the tribe of Reuben, Ramoth in Gilead, from the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan, from the tribe of Manasseh.
11_And they gave them Kirjath Arba (Arba was the father of Anak), which is Hebron, in the mountains of Judah, with the common-land surrounding it.
12_But the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh as his possession.
13_Thus to the children of Aaron the priest they gave Hebron with its common-land (a city of refuge for the slayer), Libnah with its common-land,
14_Jattir with its common-land, Eshtemoa with its common-land,
15_Holon with its common-land, Debir with its common-land,
16_Ain with its common-land, Juttah with its common-land, and Beth Shemesh with its common-land: nine cities from those two tribes;
10_Then Judah went against the Canaanites who dwelt in Hebron. (Now the name of Hebron was formerly Kirjath Arba.) And they killed Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai.
... 19_So the LORD was with Judah. And they drove out the mountaineers, but they could not drive out the inhabitants of the lowland, because they had chariots of iron.
20_And they gave Hebron to Caleb, as Moses had said. Then he expelled from there the three sons of Anak.
2_When the Gazites were told, "Samson has come here!" they surrounded the place and lay in wait for him all night at the gate of the city. They were quiet all night, saying, "In the morning, when it is daylight, we will kill him."
3_And Samson lay low till midnight; then he arose at midnight, took hold of the doors of the gate of the city and the two gateposts, pulled them up, bar and all, put them on his shoulders, and carried them to the top of the hill that faces Hebron.
26_Now when David came to Ziklag, he sent some of the spoil to the elders of Judah, to his friends, saying, "Here is a present for you from the spoil of the enemies of the LORD"--
27_to those who were in Bethel, those who were in Ramoth of the South, those who were in Jattir,
28_those who were in Aroer, those who were in Siphmoth, those who were in Eshtemoa,
29_those who were in Rachal, those who were in the cities of the Jerahmeelites, those who were in the cities of the Kenites, 30_those who were in Hormah, those who were in Chorashan, those who were in Athach,
31_those who were in Hebron, and to all the places where David himself and his men were accustomed to rove.
1_It happened after this that David inquired of the LORD, saying, "Shall I go up to any of the cities of Judah?" And the LORD said to him, "Go up." David said, "Where shall I go up?" And He said, "To Hebron (sd)."
2_So David went up there, and his two wives also, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the widow of Nabal the Carmelite.
3_And David brought up the men who were with him, every man with his household. So they dwelt in the cities of Hebron.
... 10_Ishbosheth, Saul's son, was forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and he reigned two years. Only the house of Judah followed David.
11_And the time that David was king in Hebron over the house of Judah was seven years and six months.
... 32_Then they took up Asahel and buried him in his father's tomb, which was in Bethlehem. And Joab and his men went all night, and they came to Hebron at daybreak.
2_Sons were born to David in Hebron: His firstborn was Amnon by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess;
3_his second, Chileab, by Abigail the widow of Nabal the Carmelite; the third, Absalom the son of Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur;
4_the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital;
5_and the sixth, Ithream, by David's wife Eglah. These were born to David in Hebron.
... 19_And Abner also spoke in the hearing of Benjamin. Then Abner also went to speak in the hearing of David in Hebron all that seemed good to Israel and the whole house of Benjamin.
20_So Abner and twenty men with him came to David at Hebron. And David made a feast for Abner and the men who were with him.
21_Then Abner said to David, "I will arise and go, and gather all Israel to my lord the king, that they may make a covenant with you, and that you may reign over all that your heart desires." So David sent Abner away, and he went in peace.
22_At that moment the servants of David and Joab came from a raid and brought much spoil with them. But Abner was not with David in Hebron, for he had sent him away, and he had gone in peace.
23_When Joab and all the troops that were with him had come, they told Joab, saying, "Abner the son of Ner came to the king, and he sent him away, and he has gone in peace."
24_Then Joab came to the king and said, "What have you done? Look, Abner came to you; why is it that you sent him away, and he has already gone?
25_Surely you realize that Abner the son of Ner came to deceive you, to know your going out and your coming in, and to know all that you are doing."
26_And when Joab had gone from David's presence, he sent messengers after Abner, who brought him back from the well of Sirah. But David did not know it.
27_Now when Abner had returned to Hebron, Joab took him aside in the gate to speak with him privately, and there stabbed him in the stomach, so that he died for the blood of Asahel his brother.
... 31_Then David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, "Tear your clothes, gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn for Abner." And King David followed the coffin.
32_So they buried Abner in Hebron; and the king lifted up his voice and wept at the grave of Abner, and all the people wept.
1_When Saul's son heard that Abner had died in Hebron, he lost heart, and all Israel was troubled.
2_Now Saul's son had two men who were captains of troops. The name of one was Baanah and the name of the other Rechab, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, of the children of Benjamin. (For Beeroth also was part of Benjamin,
3_because the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and have been sojourners there until this day.)
4_Jonathan, Saul's son, had a son who was lame in his feet. He was five years old when the news about Saul and Jonathan came from Jezreel; and his nurse took him up and fled. And it happened, as she made haste to flee, that he fell and became lame. His name was Mephibosheth.
5_Then the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Rechab and Baanah, set out and came at about the heat of the day to the house of Ishbosheth, who was lying on his bed at noon.
6_And they came there, all the way into the house, as though to get wheat, and they stabbed him in the stomach. Then Rechab and Baanah his brother escaped.
7_For when they came into the house, he was lying on his bed in his bedroom; then they struck him and killed him, beheaded him and took his head, and were all night escaping through the plain.
8_And they brought the head of Ishbosheth to David at Hebron, and said to the king, "Here is the head of Ishbosheth, the son of Saul your enemy, who sought your life; and the LORD has avenged my lord the king this day of Saul and his descendants."
9_But David answered Rechab and Baanah his brother, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, and said to them, "As the LORD lives, who has redeemed my life from all adversity,
10_when someone told me, saying, "Look, Saul is dead,' thinking to have brought good news, I arrested him and had him executed in Ziklag--the one who thought I would give him a reward for his news.
11_How much more, when wicked men have killed a righteous person in his own house on his bed? Therefore, shall I not now require his blood at your hand and remove you from the earth?"
12_So David commanded his young men, and they executed them, cut off their hands and feet, and hanged them by the pool in Hebron. But they took the head of Ishbosheth and buried it in the tomb of Abner in Hebron.
1_Then all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and spoke, saying, "Indeed we are your bone and your flesh.
2_Also, in time past, when Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in; and the LORD said to you, "You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over Israel."'
3_Therefore all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and King David made a covenant with them at Hebron before the LORD. And they anointed David king over Israel.
4_David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
5_In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.
6_And the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who spoke to David, saying, "You shall not come in here; but the blind and the lame will repel you," thinking, "David cannot come in here."
7_Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion (that is, the City of David).
8_Now David said on that day, "Whoever climbs up by way of the water shaft and defeats the Jebusites (the lame and the blind, who are hated by David's soul), he shall be chief and captain." Therefore they say, "The blind and the lame shall not come into the house."
9_Then David dwelt in the stronghold, and called it the City of David. And David built all around from the Millo and inward.
10_So David went on and became great, and the LORD God of hosts was with him.
11_Then Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters and masons. And they built David a house.
12_So David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel, and that He had exalted His kingdom for the sake of His people Israel.
13_And David took more concubines and wives from Jerusalem, after he had come from Hebron. Also more sons and daughters were born to David.
7_Now it came to pass after forty years that Absalom said to the king, "Please, let me go to Hebron and pay the vow which I made to the LORD.
8_For your servant took a vow while I dwelt at Geshur in Syria, saying, "If the LORD indeed brings me back to Jerusalem, then I will serve the LORD."'
9_And the king said to him, "Go in peace." So he arose and went to Hebron.
10_Then Absalom sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, "As soon as you hear the sound of the trumpet, then you shall say, "Absalom reigns in Hebron!"'
11_The period that David reigned over Israel was forty years; seven years he reigned in Hebron, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years.
42_The descendants of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were Mesha, his firstborn, who was the father of Ziph, and the sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron.
43_The sons of Hebron were Korah, Tappuah, Rekem, and Shema.
1_Now these were the sons of David who were born to him in Hebron: The firstborn was Amnon, by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, by Abigail the Carmelitess;
2_the third, Absalom the son of Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith;
3_the fifth, Shephatiah, by Abital; the sixth, Ithream, by his wife Eglah.
4_These six were born to him in Hebron. There he reigned seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years.
2_The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
... 18_The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.
... 54_Now these are their dwelling places throughout their settlements in their territory, for they were given by lot to the sons of Aaron, of the family of the Kohathites:
55_They gave them Hebron in the land of Judah, with its surrounding common-lands.
56_But the fields of the city and its villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
57_And to the sons of Aaron they gave one of the cities of refuge, Hebron; also Libnah with its common-lands, Jattir, Eshtemoa with its common-lands,
58_Hilen with its common-lands, Debir with its common-lands,
59_Ashan with its common-lands, and Beth Shemesh with its common-lands.
1_Then all Israel came together to David at Hebron, saying, "Indeed we are your bone and your flesh.
2_Also, in time past, even when Saul was king, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in; and the LORD your God said to you, "You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over My people Israel."'
3_Therefore all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a covenant with them at Hebron before the LORD. And they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.
23_Now these were the numbers of the divisions that were equipped for war, and came to David at Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the LORD:
... 38_All these men of war, who could keep ranks, came to Hebron (sd) with a loyal heart, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest of Israel were of one mind to make David king.
4_Then David assembled the children of Aaron and the Levites:
5_of the sons of Kohath, Uriel the chief, and one hundred and twenty of his brethren;
6_of the sons of Merari, Asaiah the chief, and two hundred and twenty of his brethren;
7_of the sons of Gershom, Joel the chief, and one hundred and thirty of his brethren;
8_of the sons of Elizaphan, Shemaiah the chief, and two hundred of his brethren;
9_of the sons of Hebron, Eliel the chief, and eighty of his brethren;
10_of the sons of Uzziel, Amminadab the chief, and one hundred and twelve of his brethren.
12_The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel--four in all.
... 19_Of the sons of Hebron, Jeriah was the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth.
22_The sons of Jehieli, Zetham and Joel his brother, were over the treasuries of the house of the LORD.
23_Of the Amramites, the Izharites, the Hebronites, and the Uzzielites:
24_Shebuel the son of Gershom, the son of Moses, was overseer of the treasuries.
... 30_Of the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his brethren, one thousand seven hundred able men, had the oversight of Israel on the west side of the Jordan for all the business of the LORD, and in the service of the king.
31_Among the Hebronites, Jerijah was head of the Hebronites according to his genealogy of the fathers. In the fortieth year of the reign of David they were sought, and there were found among them capable men at Jazer of Gilead.
26_Thus David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel.
27_And the period that he reigned over Israel was forty years; seven years he reigned in Hebron, and thirty-three years he reigned in Jerusalem.
5_So Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for defense in Judah.
6_And he built Bethlehem, Etam, Tekoa,
7_Beth Zur, Sochoh, Adullam,
8_Gath, Mareshah, Ziph,
9_Adoraim, Lachish, Azekah,
10_Zorah, Aijalon, and Hebron, which are in Judah and Benjamin, fortified cities.
11_And he fortified the strongholds, and put captains in them, and stores of food, oil, and wine.
65_Afterward went Judas forth with his brethren, and fought against the children of Esau in the land toward the south, where he smote Hebron, and the towns thereof, and pulled down the fortress of it, and burned the towers thereof round about. (Note that although many scholars believe 1Maccabees was composed in Hebrew, the earliest known copies are Greek, so we don't know if it was plene or defectiva.)
The focal point of Hebron--Herod's monument at the burial cave of the patriarchs (photo courtesy of BiblePlaces Dotcom):