LMLK--Publications (Article Sort)

Biblical Accounts
NonBiblical Accounts

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Personal Seals





For your convenience, 3 other versions of the bibliography are provided below: If you know of another book or magazine with significant LMLK content (i.e., any photos/drawings or at least 1 page of text), please submit it via E-mail to the address shown in the menu to the left.

Sorted by Article Title (Total:  202)

Note:  All photos & plates are black/white unless stated as being in color.

BASOR 271 2 Chr 11:5-10 Fortified Cities List & the LMLK Stamps--Reply to Nadav Na'aman Garfinkel, Yosef August 1988 Debates the relationship between LMLK sites & Rehoboam's city-list with a corpus showing LMLK quantities per excavated site (4 pages, 1 table)
Holy Land Philatelist:  Israel's Stamp Monthly, The About the Flying Scroll Pollack, F.W. September 1955 Report of a lecture given by Immanuel Ben-Dor of the Dept. of Antiquities of the Ministry of Education for Israel (accompanied by photo of all 5 postage stamps)
From Antiquity to the Present Administration in Judah in the 8th and 7th Centuries B.C. Millard, Alan 2008 Suggests LMLKs collected & distributed produce brought to centres as tax or given out as payment beginning with Ahaz for annual Assyrian tribute (2 pages within 9 total about weights & general admin)
Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society vol. 5 Administrative Divisions of Israel & Judah, The Albright, W.F. 1925 Discusses the identification of districts throughout the 12 tribes & uses the LMLK inscriptions to illustrate their evolution, but also summarizes all of the LMLK theories up to that time (37 pages total including 2 map drawings--10 have LMLK content)
PEQ vol. 32 Age of the Inscribed Jar-Handles from Palestine, The Sayce, A.H. January 1900 Limits the LMLK timeframe based on 4 criteria--a handle with a stamped oval cartouche found at Tell El-Amarna, concentric circles, upward winged icons, & 1Chronicles 4, all of which narrows them to the 8th century (4 pages plus El-Amarna handle photo)
Scripta Hierosolymitana vol. 8 Ancient Judaean Weights & the Date of the Samaria Ostraca Rabin, Chaim
Yadin, Yigael
1961 Article by Yadin that presents data to support the interpretation of a symbol on shekel weights to be a stylized version of the 4-winged icon on LMLK seals (6 pages & photo of famous Lachish M4L)
IEJ vol. 3 #2 Another bat-le-melekh Inscription Avigad, N. 1953 Proposes a new interpretation of a sherd from Nasbeh based on the BT LMLK found at Lachish (2 pages, 1 photo, 1 drawing)
BAR vol. 5 #6 Answers at Lachish Ussishkin, David Nov/Dec 1979 About 4 pages of text presenting internal evidence based on LMLK jars vs. external evidence based on Samarian pottery regarding the dating of Lachish strata (photo/drawing of an S2U, color photo/drawing of H4L, & Jar 10091)
Journal of Epigraphy & Rock Drawings, Third Issue Arabian Seals and Bullae Along the Trade Routes of Judah and Edom van der Veen, Pieter Gert 2009 Defends "LNRT" reading of LMRA impression (2 pages; includes photo of plasticine impression)
Journal of Hebrew Scriptures vol. 12, article 4 Archaeological Facts, Historical Speculations & the Date of the LMLK Storage Jars:  A Rejoinder to David Ussishkin Lipschits, Oded March 2012 (published online; click here to read it)
BA vol. 12 #4 Archaeological News & Views Wright, G. Ernest December 1949 One page describing the results of the first chemical analysis of LMLK handle clay
AASOR vol. 34-35 for 1954-1956 Archaeological Study of Gibeah (Tell El-Ful), An Albright, W.F.
Sinclair, Lawrence A.
1960 Briefly describes 5 excavated handles & includes small photos of 3 (all x2x)
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 15 Aroer in the Negev Biran, A.
Cohen, R.
1981 Hebrew chapter with a Z2U handle photo
'Atiqot vol. 9-10 Ashdod II-III:  The Second & Third Seasons of Excavations 1963, 1965 (Text) Dothan, M. 1971 A page describing a multi-stamped G2T along with a photo
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 1 (A-El), The Beth-Shemesh Stern, Ephraim
Bunimovitz, Shlomo
Lederman, Zvi
1993 Briefly discusses the stratum LMLK handles were excavated from & provides an H4L photo
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 18 Between Judah & Philistia:  Timnah (Tel Batash) in the Iron Age II Mazar, A. 1985 Hebrew chapter about the Timnah excavation that includes photos of an M2U, Z2U, & the inverted S4L handles
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 17 "Border Road" Between Michmash & Jericho & the Excavations at Horvat Shilhah, The Mazar, A.
Amit, D.
Ilan, Z.
1984 Hebrew chapter with a Z2D handle photo & drawings
RB vol. 10 Bulletin Lecoffre, V. 1901 French article that belittles the interpretations of Wright & Conder published in English journals earlier in the year (1 page)
RB vol. 8 #3 Chronique--Notes Archaeologiques et Nouvelles:  Les Fouilles Anglaises a Tell Zakariya Vincent, H. July 1899 French article that reviews & rejects the Molok & regional king theories in light of the newly discovered H4L from Azekah (2 pages)
RB vol. 9 #4 Chronique:  Les Fouilles Anglaises L. (probably Victor Lecoffre) October 1900 French article that reviews theories by Bliss & Clermont-Ganneau concluding that MMST is not Moresheth-Gath (2 pages)
RB vol. 9 Chronique:  Les Recentes Fouilles d'Ophel Vincent, H. 1912 French article presenting an M2T excavated in Jerusalem, which appears to have "MRST" instead of "MMST" prompting the author to identify it with Moresheth (3 pages with 5 detailed drawings of the handle & impression)
Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine vol. 14, The Citadel, Jerusalem.  A Summary of Work Since 1934, The Johns, C.N. 1950 Photo of an M2D handle with a brief description of where it was excavated
Archaeological Discoveries in the Holy Land Citadel of Ramat Rahel, The Aharoni, Yohanan 1967 This chapter includes 2 photos of handles (a Z4CI & an H2D with #687-22a personal seal) & a page of text
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 15 Classification des Estampilles Royales Judeennes Lemaire, Andre 1981 French chapter that analyzes the Diringer/Lapp/Aharoni & Welten typologies, systematically points out the faults of Welten's system, then establishes a new classification & cross-references it to Welten's; also questions whether there is any correspondence between personal seal names & LMLK seal types (6 pages plus 1 plate of 19 small impression photos)
B&I Considering the Reconsidering of LMLK Chronology Grena, G.M. August 2010 (published online; click here to read it)
B&I Considering the Rejoinder to LMLK Chronology Grena, G.M. February 2012 (published online; click here to read it)
PEQ vol. 37 Craftsmen's Guild of the Tribe of Judah, The Macalister, R.A. Stewart July 1905 Chapters 1-3 of a detailed & creative interpretation of genealogies in 1Chronicles 4 based on the theory that the LMLK inscriptions represent potters (10 pages)
PEQ vol. 37 Craftsmen's Guild of the Tribe of Judah (Conclusion), The Macalister, R.A. Stewart October 1905 Chapters 4-6 of a detailed & creative interpretation of genealogies in 1Chronicles 4 based on the theory that the LMLK inscriptions represent potters, & concludes that MMST & ZYF impressions date to the apostasy of Joash while the HBRN & SUKE ones date to the reign of Ahaz (14 pages plus full-page genealogy chart)
PEQ vol. 25 Cuneiform & Other Inscriptions Found at Lachish & Elsewhere in the South of Palestine, The Sayce, A.H. January 1893 Only one paragraph that mentions similarities between concentric circles on an ivory plaque & a royal Egyptian scarab with those on the LMLK handles; also provides details about 4 of Warren's original handles
BASOR 271 Date of 2 Chronicles 11:5-10--A Reply to Y. Garfinkel, The Na'aman, Nadav August 1988 Debates the relationship between LMLK sites & Rehoboam's city-list by reaffirming data presented in BASOR 261 (3 pages)
TA vol. 38 #2 Dating of the lmlk Storage Jars and Its Implications: Rejoinder to Lipschits, Sergi and Koch; The Ussishkin, David November 2011 Reaffirms his belief that all LMLK types date to the period shortly before Sennacherib's invasion of Judah (21 pages & 1 Lachish M2D with Circles photo)
TA vol. 4 #1-2 Destruction of Lachish by Sennacherib & the Dating of the Royal Judean Storage Jars, The Ussishkin, David 1977 Contains about 22 well-written pages clarifying the history of excavation at Lachish (plus 6 layout drawings) & 4 more pages of text outlining LMLK chronology theories
Neue Kirchliche Beitschrift vol. 17 Die in Palastina Ausgegrabenen Altisraelitischen Krugstempel Sellin, D. (Ernst?) 1906 German article that analyzes the major theories & proposes a combination of one by Sayce & one by Macalister--that some names in 1Chronicles 2-4 should be interpreted as places rather than people, that MMST=Mareshah, & that the 4 words represent 4 potteries established by Uzziah (10 pages)
BAR vol. 31 #5 Discovering Hebron:  The City of the Patriarchs Slowly Yields Its Secrets Chadwick, Jeffrey R. Sep/Oct 2005 Presents an excellent overview of excavations at Hebron focusing on Bronze Age data (color photo of van der Veen's H2U)
'Atiqot (English Series) vol. 5 En-Gedi Excavations in 1961-1962 Mazar, B.
Dothan, Trude
Dunayevsky, I.
1966 A page of analysis & photo of the LMRA impression
BAR vol. 15 #1 Excavating in Samson Country Kelm, George L.
Mazar, Amihai
Jan/Feb 1989 Briefly mentions the handles found at Timnah but includes color photos of handle 7280 & some crushed jars in situ
AASOR vol. 12 for 1930-1931 Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim in Palestine, The, vol. 1:  The Pottery of the First Three Campaigns Cadbury, Henry J.
Albright, William Foxwell
1932 Photos of 2 complete handles (H2U (#867) & H4C (#1068)); no significant text
AASOR vol. 21-22 for 1941-1943 Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim, The, vol. 3:  The Iron Age Albright, William Foxwell
Kelso, James Leon
Thorley, J. Palin
1943 2 pages of text (& drawings of 2 H2U impressions) in which Albright changes from the "district capitals" theory to "royal store-cities" interpretation of the inscriptions & equates MMST with Mampsis but locates it near Gezer/Zorah/Ajalon; 2 more pages (plus a photo) regarding an inscribed "BT" jar fragment that he compares to the Lachish BT LMLK; a 34-page chapter by Kelso & Thorley about pottery in general & specifics about large storage jars like Type 484
AASOR vol. 4 for 1922-1923 Excavations & Results at Tell El-Ful (Gibeah of Saul) Bacon, Benjamin W.
Albright, W.F.
1924 About a paragraph of general comments & an M2T drawing
'Atiqot vol. 47 Excavations at Kikkar Safra (City Hall), Jerusalem 1989 Maeir, Aren M.
Bahat, Dan
2004 A paragraph of text mentioning an S2U found in a modern context (includes handle drawings & photo)
BA vol. 24 #4 Excavations at Ramat Rahel Aharoni, Yohanan December 1961 One page of text & 2 photos (M2D & H4L)
Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society vol. XXIV #2-3 Excavations at Ramat Rahel (Second Season, 1959) Aharoni, Y. 1960 Hebrew report summarizing all finds (55 pages with 8 drawings of H4L, Z4CI, Z2D, H2D, M2U impressions; 6 H4L, Z4CI, Z2D, H2D, M2U photos)
IEJ vol. 6 #3 Excavations at Ramath Rahel, 1954 Aharoni, Y. 1956 Briefly mentions the first 2 handles (x2xR & Z2D) found in the first season along with their photos
IEJ vol. 14 #3 Excavations at Tel Arad:  Preliminary Report on the First Season, 1962 Aharoni, Y.
Amiran, Ruth
1964 Photo of an S4L handle & a paragraph of text mentioning 4 others
TA vol. 2 #4 Excavations at Tel Beer-Sheba:  Preliminary Report of the 5th & 6th Seasons, 1973-1974 Aharoni, Yohanan 1975 Photo, line drawing, & 1-page discussion of the Half LMLK Jar
TA vol. 5 #1-2 Excavations at Tel Lachish 1973-1977:  Preliminary Report Ussishkin, David 1978 Contains about 3 pages of text, 2 pages of drawings & matching plates showing 4 complete jars & a sample of each of their LMLK impressions, & a photo of excavated jars in situ
TA vol. 10 #2 Excavations at Tel Lachish 1978-1983:  Second Preliminary Report Ussishkin, David 1983 A comprehensive article covering all areas of excavation (including radiocarbon dating of wood samples from each stratum) with 2 pages of text discussing restored LMLK jars, a plus mark handle, & a multi-stamp handle (drawings/photos of jars & photos of 4 handles)
Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 41 Excavations at the City of David 1978-1985 Directed by Yigal Shiloh vol. 6:  Inscriptions Ariel, Donald T.
Shoham, Yair
2000 Only 1 page of text & a corpus table, but 2 plates of impression photos (17) & drawings (13) & a plate of circle photos (including 2 handles with personal seals & circles)
IEJ vol. 20 #3-4 Excavations in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1970 (2nd Preliminary Report) Avigad, N. 1970 Includes a photo of an H2D handle; no significant text
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 9 Excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem, The Mazar, Benjamin 1969 Hebrew chapter with a Z2D handle photo
Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 29 Excavations in the South of the Temple Mount:  the Ophel of Biblical Jerusalem Mazar, Eilat
Mazar, Benjamin
Nadelman, Yonatan
1989 Less than a page of LMLK text with a corpus table, but 1 plate of 19 photos of impressions (& 1 drawing of a handle) & about a page of discussion related to plus marks on small, non-LMLK pot handles (also photos of 12 plus marks & 8 circles-only handles)
Survey of Western Palestine:  Jerusalem, The Excavations Round the Noble Sanctuary, 1867-1870 Warren, Charles 1884 Minor additional details beyond the original report (2 pages, 2 drawings)
Biblical World vol. 17, The Exploration & Discovery:  Jar-Handles Wright, Theodore F. February 1901 Single page suggested interpretation of "for Moloch" or "for the lord" (drawing of H4L handle & impression)
BASOR 142 Explorations in the Judaean Buqe'ah Cross Jr., Frank M.
Milik, J.T.
April 1956 Photo of an x2x handle (described by the authors as an M2x) & a footnote description of where it was excavated
BASOR 43 First Campaign of Excavation at Beth-zur, The Sellers, O.R.
Albright, W.F.
October 1931 Briefly mentions 11 handles with small photos of 5
BASOR 163 Fourfold Division of Judah, The Yadin, Yigael October 1961 Argues for the theory that the 4 city names were key places within defensive zones & the LMLK jars stored state provisions collected within those zones (7 pages)
PEQ vol. 32 Fourth Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya Bliss, F.J. January 1900 Describes 4 handles found at Azekah (1 page plus drawing of Z4CI)
'I Will Speak the Riddles of Ancient Times':  Archaeological & Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday vol. 2 Function of the m(w)sh-Stamped Jars Revisited, The Edelman, Diana
Maeir, A. M.
de Miroschedji, P.
2006 Mostly reviews Mozah theories in the Babylonian rather than Persian period, & draws some parallels to LMLKs (13 pages overall, but only about 2 with specific LMLK content)
BA vol. 30 #2 Gezer in the Land & in History Lance, H. Darrell May 1967 A page of text that briefly considers why any LMLK handles were found at Gezer, & suggests that both icons date to Josiah's reign (includes the famous photo of 1 H4L & 2 S2U handles & mistakenly alludes to it representing Gezer artifacts, which is not a serious error since both icons were found at Gezer)
LRW G.M. Grena's Review of RAEL Grena, G.M. January 2005 (published online; click here to read it)
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 23 Group of Stamped Handles from Judah, A Barkay, Gabriel 1992 Hebrew chapter discussing 36 handles (17 LMLKs; 14 personals (7 different names); 5 miscellaneous) from an illicit excavation possibly at Tell Beit Mirsim (16 pages including many small photos of the handles (15 LMLKs))
Age of the Monarchies vol. 4-1:  Political History, The Hebrew Epigraphic Sources Avigad, N.
Malamat, Abraham
1979 Chapter with a brief listing of major theories noting which scholars subscribe to each (2 pages)
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 6 Hebrew Jar-Stamps from Ramat Rahel Aharoni, Y. 1960 Hebrew chapter from his summer '59 excavations (5 pages including a page of impression drawings & 1 photo of a handle with an H2D & #687-22a personal seal impressions)
Congress Volume:  Jerusalem 1986 Hebrew Seals & Sealings & Their Significance for Biblical Research Avigad, N.
Emerton, J.A.
1988 Includes a 1-page overview with an emphasis on theories surrounding Rehoboam's fortified city-list
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 2 (Em-Je), The Hebron Stern, Ephraim
Ofer, Avi
1993 Briefly mentions LMLK handles excavated at Tel Hebron & provides an H2D photo
PSBA vol. 20 #155 Herodian Pottery & the Siloam Inscription Pilcher, E.J. June 1898 Argues for dating Hezekiah's tunnel inscription & the LMLK seals to King Herod (includes drawings of 4 of the original 6 impressions excavated by Warren along with the first 2 handle illustrations of a Z2D & Plus mark)
Book & the Spade (#883 & 884), The Hezekiah & L'Melech Handles I & II Vaughn, Andy
Govier, Gordon
January 2003 A 24-minute radio interview (originally recorded in the Fall of 2002 & broadcast in January of 2003 in 2 parts) that succinctly explains the difference between Samuel/Kings & Chronicles, & notes how LMLK handles support the reliability of Chronicles
BASOR 261 Hezekiah's Fortified Cities & the LMLK Stamps Na'aman, Nadav February 1986 Argues for the theories that the city list in 2Chronicles 11 was attributed to Rehoboam in error, SUKE is north of Hebron, MMST is north of Jerusalem, & the purpose was an emergency military-supplies build-up; also provides an excellent comprehensive summary (17 pages, 1 map drawing of cities)
Scripture & Other Artifacts Hezekiah's Reform & the Altars at Beer-sheba & Arad Rainey, Anson F.
Greene, Joseph A.
1994 A chapter that includes a brief discussion of the Beersheba LMLK pithos jar
HTR vol. 72 #1-2 Hezekiah's Reform & the Deuteronomistic Tradition Rosenbaum, Jonathan January-April 1979 Article that includes a page about LMLK theories explaining that Hezekiah's dominion was superior to Josiah's irrespective of any theory
BA vol. 58 #3 Hezekiah's Reforms & the Revolt Against Assyria Borowski, Oded September 1995 Detailed archaeological evidence for King Hezekiah's reformation with an emphasis on altars at Arad, Beersheba, Rimmon, & Lachish (7 pages plus a photo of Jar 10074)
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 18 Hierarchic Pattern in the Private Seal-Impressions on the LMLK Jar-Handles, A Garfinkel, Y. 1985 Hebrew chapter that proposes 3 classes of personal seal owners:  inter-regional, regional, & local (8 pages including charts)
ZDPV vol. 91 #1 Hirbet Kefire - eine Oberflachenuntersuchung Vriezen, Karel J. H. 1975 German article presenting the excavation of Biblical Chephirah (1 page of text plus an x2x photo)
Shlomo:  Studies in the Epigraphy, Iconography, History & Archaeology in Honor of Shlomo Moussaieff Hoard of Fifty Hebrew Clay Bullae from the Time of Hezekiah in the Shlomo Moussaieff Collection, A Deutsch, Robert 2003 Includes photos of a Maon LMLK bulla, 3 bullae from King Hezekiah's personal seals, & several bullae made by seals of King Hezekiah's servants
Retrieving the Past Hurvat Shilhah:  An Iron Age Site in the Judean Desert Seger, Joe D.
Mazar, Amihai
1996 Article summarizing evidence for 7th-century use of 8th-century jars (photo of Z2D handle)
Monographs of the Hebrew Union College #23 In the Service of the King:  Officialdom in Ancient Israel & Judah Fox, Nili Sacher 2000 Minor revision of her 1997 dissertation entitled "Royal Functionaries..." (20 pages in this format)
PEQ vol. 32 Inscribed Jar-Handles of Palestine Clermont-Ganneau July 1900 Corrects the reading of a handle excavated in 1874 from NB to HBRN (1 page)
LMLK Blogspot Intact Jars--Watch Your Mouths! Grena, G.M. June 3-7 2006 (published online; click here to read it)
Archaeology of Ancient Israel, The Iron Age II-III, The Ben-Tor, Amnon
Barkay, Gabriel
1992 (English edition translated by R. Greenberg) Brief but comprehensive overview that emphasizes the importance of Lachish & Timnah data (2 pages of text, photos of H4L & H2U impressions & Jar 10091
Excavations at Jericho vol. 4:  The Pottery Type Series & Other Finds Iron Age & Hellenistic Stamped Jar Handles from Tell Es-Sultan Kenyon, K.M.
Holland, T.A.
Bartlett, J.R.
1982 The first page of the appendix describes the 2 handles found at Jericho (x2x photo & drawing)
BA vol. 38 #2 Israel at the Close of the Period of the Monarchy:  An Archaeological Survey Stern, Ephraim May 1975 Includes about 6 pages that analyze the LMLK seals & weights with analogous usage of contemporaries; attempts to reclassify x4x LMLK--1, x2x LMLK--2, rosettes--3, & circles--4 (photo of 1 H4L & 2 S2U handles)
BA vol. 48 #3 Israel, Judah, and Ammon and the Motifs on the Baalis Seal from Tell el-'Umeiri Younker, Randall W. September 1985 Discusses winged scarabs with solar dung balls (1 page with a drawing of Gibeon M4C #523)
PEQ vol. 33 Jar-Handle Inscriptions I Wright, Theodore F. January 1901 Restates the original reports & possible interpretations, notably the icon being associated with the Hebrew 'RB (i.e., scarab; 2 pages)
PEQ vol. 33 Jar-Handle Inscriptions II Conder, C.R. January 1901 Discusses the importance of the discovery of the first clear MMST inscription with the interpretation, "Dedicated to the Moloch who presides over the water that will be drawn (MST) by means of this jar" (1 page)
Ministry vol. 64 #7 Jar Handles Reveal Hezekiah's Hopes Younker, Randall W. July 1991 Concentrates on the expansion of Jerusalem during Hezekiah's reign due to immigration following the fall of Samaria & tends to agree with Tushingham's proposal that the 2 icons represent Judah & Israel; prefers the military supplies theory but doesn't attempt to explain the 4 words (4 pages, photos of M2D #3464 & M4C #5943-1 from "Discovering Jerusalem")
IEJ vol. 18 #4 Jar Inscriptions from Shiqmona Cross Jr., F.M. 1968 Presents drawings of 2 Persian-era, Phoenician-cursive, ink-written ostraca ("Ben Matton, 25 LMLK wine of Gat Karmel") with a brief comparison to the LMLK seals (8 pages including a paleography chart)
Law & Ideology in Monarchic Israel Jerusalem & the Lineages in the Seventh Century BCE:  Kinship & the Rise of Individual Moral Liability Halpern, Baruch 1991 A 2-page discussion of the military build-up theory
Hadashot Arkheologiyot vol. 120 Jerusalem, Arnona Final Report Nagar, Annette 2008 English version of 3/8/2008 Hebrew report of May 2006 salvage excavation, where an S4L handle was discovered near Kefar 'Ezyon Street (Kfar Etsyon Street; 1 page with color handle photo)
PSBA vol. 32 #238 Jewish Royal Pottery Stamps, The Pilcher, E.J. March 1910 Discussion of the 4 major Palestinian strata (using many quotes from Bliss) in an attempt to narrow down the date of LMLK ware (9 pages of text plus photos of a Z4CI & S2U)
PSBA vol. 32 #239 Jewish Royal Pottery Stamps (continued), The Pilcher, E.J. May 1910 Presentation of Persian 2-winged icons to support dating all LMLK seals to Persian rule around 375 BC (9 pages of text; photos of a Z4CI & 3 coins bearing 2-winged icons; drawings of similar, significant 2-winged icons)
TA vol. 38 #1 Judahite Stamped and Incised Jar Handles: A Tool for Studying the History of Late Monarchic Judah Lipschits, Oded
Sergi, Omer
Koch, Ido
June 2011 Elaborates on chronological divisions between early/late LMLKs, Circles, Rosettes (31 pages, 4 distribution maps, 3 corpus tables)
NEASB vol. 46 Judean Jar Handles Bearing Concentric Circles Ji, Chang-Ho 2001 Examination of handles with Circle marks that suggests they were made during Manasseh's reign (11 pages; drawings of S2DW, M2D, x2x; photos of H2U & H4L from Lachish & x2x with Circles at Horn Archaeological Museum)
Restoration Quarterly vol. 28 #1 Judean LMLK Stamps:  Some Unresolved Issues, The Moore, Michael S. 1985/6 Summarizes the early theories surrounding LMLK paleography, correctly predicting that Ussishkin's Lachish excavations would resolve many of them; also correctly (& humorously) labels the geographical name theories as "weak", "weaker", & "weakest" (about 9 pages)
Eretz-Israel:  Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies vol. 9 Judean Stamps Cross Jr., Frank Moore 1969 Argues for the theories that LMLKs belong to King Josiah, they signified a standardized, royal measure of wine indicated by vintage names, & the personal seal belonged to potters (7 pages including a detailed discussion of seals that mention potters such as the YHD types)
Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 3 (Ji-N) Judeideh, Tell Avi-Yonah, Michael
Stern, Ephraim
Broshi, M.
1977 Briefly mentions LMLK handles excavated at Moresheth-Gath & provides excellent photos of H4L & S2U impressions
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 3 (Jo-Pel), The Judeideh, Tell Stern, Ephraim
Broshi, Magen
1993 Briefly mentions LMLK handles excavated at Moresheth-Gath & provides an H4L photo
Hadashot Arkheologiyot vol. 119 Khirbat el Mas'ud Nagorsky, Alla 2007 English version of 11/2/2007 Hebrew report of September 2003 salvage excavation, where an S2DW handle was discovered just north of the northern Sokoh (1 page with color handle photo)
TA vol. 1 #1 Khirbet Rabud = Debir Kochavi, Moshe 1974 Only one sentence with a photo of an M4L
IEJ vol. 45 #1 King of Babylonia or a Judaean Official?, The Barkay, Gabriel 1995 Presents 5 major reasons for interpreting the LMRA seal as a LMLK personal seal instead of a later period seal representing a king or governor (6 pages, 2 photos, 1 drawing)
TA vol. 18 #1 Kingdom of Judah Under Josiah, The Na'aman, Nadav 1991 Compares the distribution of the LMLK & rosette jars with Biblical place-name lists (about 4 pages with an excellent map of excavation sites)
HTR vol. 64 #2-3 Kleine Beitrage zur Siedlungsgeschichte der Stamme Asser und Juda Kuschke, Arnulf April-July 1971 German article that mentions an x2x handle excavated from "Eswa'" (Estaol; includes handle drawing)
Anchor Bible Dictionary vol. 4 (K-N) Lachish Freedman, David Noel
Ussishkin, David
1992 A few succinct summary paragraphs about important conclusions drawn from the major excavations there along with a photo of 3 jars
Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 3 (Ji-N) Lachish Avi-Yonah, Michael
Stern, Ephraim
Ussishkin, D.
1977 Briefly mentions LMLK handles & jars excavated at Lachish with a photo of 3 jars
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 3 (Jo-Pel), The Lachish Stern, Ephraim
Ussishkin, David
1993 A few succinct summary paragraphs about important conclusions drawn from the major excavations there along with a photo of 3 jars
Qadmoniot vol. 15 #2-3 (58-59) Lachish in the Days of the Kingdom of Judah--The Recent Archaeological Excavations Ussishkin, D. 1982 Hebrew article (15 pages) with photos of complete Jar 10091 & its H4L impression
Qadmoniot vol. 9 #2-3 (34-35) "Lamelekh" Store-Jars & the Excavation at Lachish Ussishkin, D. 1976 Hebrew article (5 pages) with photos of excavated jars in situ, 4 restored jars, & 3 impressions
BAR vol. 28 #4 Lasting Impressions:  New Bullae Reveal Egyptian-Style Emblems on Judah's Royal Seals Deutsch, Robert Jul/Aug 2002 A tremendous, landmark article that presents 3 of King Hezekiah's personal seals based on 6 impressions including one with 2 ankhs beside a winged disc, a bulla from King Ahaz's personal seal, & 4 other bullae from servants of Hezekiah plus a discussion of iconography & plene/defectiva orthography (9 pages, an epigraphy chart, photos of 11 bullae (with drawings), the sealed Elephantine papyrus, & a Z2D handle)
BASOR 158 Late Royal Seals From Judah Lapp, Paul W. April 1960 An exhaustive analysis of all aspects of the seals/jars with an excellent emphasis on scripts including a table of inscription drawings & a critical paleographic study of Diringer's classes (11 pages)
PEQ vol. 32 List of Casts & Wax Impressions of Stamped Jar-Handles Bliss, F.J. July 1900 A single page with vague descriptions of 5 handles from Moresheth-Gath & 6 from Azekah
TA vol. 23 #1 LMLK & Official Seal Impressions from Tel Lachish Barkay, Gabriel
Vaughn, Andrew G.
1996 A definitive census of Lachish jar handles (13 pages)
'I Will Speak the Riddles of Ancient Times':  Archaeological & Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday vol. 2 lmlk Jar-Form Redefined:  A New Class of Iron Age II Oval-Shaped Storage Jar, The Gitin, Seymour
Maeir, A. M.
de Miroschedji, P.
2006 Proposes a new classification system combining LMLKs & Rosettes, stamped & unstamped, 4- & 2-handled jars spanning 2 centuries (17 pages, small drawings of 3 LMLK-stamped jars)
LRW LMLK Seals in the Michael Welch Collection Welch, Michael March 2003 (published online; click here to read it)
IEJ vol. 39 #1-2 LMLK Stamp from Beth-El, A Eshel, Hanan 1989 Presents alternative interpretations of sparse LMLK handles found beyond Judah's borders (3 pages plus photo & drawing of an x4L)
NEASB vol. 55 LMLK Storage Jars & the Reign of Uzziah:  Towards a Mid-eighth Century B.C. Terminus a Quo for the Royal Jars of the Kingdom of Judah, The Hudon, Jeffrey P. 2010 Affirms multi-reign usage of stamped jars with MMST = Ramat Rahel's estate, not the palace (13 pages)
Kedem:  Studies in Jewish Archaeology Meaning of the "Le-Melekh" Inscriptions, The Sukenik, E.L. 1942 5-page Hebrew chapter that argues for the royal standard measure theory with a good photo of Jar 5461 & BT LMLK fragment
RB vol. 39 #1 Melanges:  L'Ancien Hebreu dans la Vie Courante Dhorme, P. January 1930 French single-page summary that mentions the first handles found at Nasbeh 6-12-1929
LRW Michael Welch's Review of "LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1" Welch, Michael June 2004 (published online; click here to read it)
Archaeology & Old Testament Study Mizpah Diringer, D.
Thomas, D. Winton
1967 Two pages about the importance of handles excavated from Nasbeh
Anchor Bible Dictionary vol. 4 (K-N) MMST Freedman, David Noel
Lance, H. Darrell
1992 A few paragraphs of the major geographical name theories
RB vol. 82 #1 MMST=Amwas, Vers la Solution d'Une Enigme de l'Epigraphie Hebraique Lemaire, Andre January 1975 French article presenting evidence to identify MMST with a geographical place midway between Tel Aviv & Jerusalem based on impressions found at northern sites (as opposed to southern sites such as Kurnub) & an analysis of the root-meaning ("overnight lodging place") of the Hebrew consonants (9 pages including a hand-drawn map of the area)
BASOR 109 MMST & MSH Ginsberg, H.L. February 1948 A 2-page presentation/analysis of the MMST=MMSLT theory based on MSH=Mizpah
Expository Times vol. 12, The MMST--Mampsis Hommel, Fritz October 1900 - September 1901 One-paragraph thesis with ancient references to Mampsis
BAR vol. 29 #3 Mounds of Mystery:  Where the Kings of Judah Were Lamented Barkay, Gabriel May/Jun 2003 Presents an overview of 19 tumuli & interprets #4 as belonging to King Hezekiah based mostly on 2 LMLK handles & 2 handles with circles excavated there (small color photos of Z2D & x4L handles)
BAR vol. 33 #2 Mystery of Nechushtan, The Shanks, Hershel Mar/Apr 2007 Reviews Swanson's argument that the icons are Egyptian symbols, & their disuse demonstrates loyalty to Assyria (color photo of M2U)
Hadashot Arkheologiyot vol. 119 Nahal Yo'el Final Report Baruch, Yuval 2007 English version of 9/5/2007 Hebrew report of October 2002 salvage excavation, where an "H2x" handle was discovered, but the drawing more closely resembles a Z2D
Israel Philatelist vol. 34 #1/2, The Nature & Origin of the Flying Scroll Design Farber, William D. February 1983 Provides background details on how the 2-winged LMLK seal design was chosen for Israel's first postage stamps in 1948 (7 pages; photos of Jar 5461 & H2U handle; drawings of Z4CI, S4L, & S2U stamps; Aharoni's 12 Judean Districts map)
BAR vol. 34 #3 Nebi Samwil:  Where Samuel Crowned Israel's First King Magen, Yitzhak May/Jun 2008 Argues for this being the site of Mizpah instead of Tell en-Nasbeh (very small color photo of H2T, Z2D, & 2 x2x handles)
IEJ vol. 8 #1 Negeb of Judah, The Aharoni, Y. 1958 Photos of an x4L & handles with Plus Marks from Tell 'Ira (Khirbat al-Gharra); no significant text
Judah & Jerusalem Negev (South) of Judah, The Aharoni, Y. (no editor named) 1957 Hebrew chapter with photo of an x4L from Tell 'Ira (Khirbat al-Gharra); published in English in IEJ vol. 8 #1
BASOR 287 New Evidence Bearing on the Two-Winged LMLK Stamp Tushingham, A.D. August 1992 Presents evidence from Jerusalem excavations for associating the 4-winged icon with the northern kingdom of Israel & the 2-winged icon with the southern kingdom of Judah with the implication of continued 2-winged use from Hezekiah to Josiah; also suggests that the LMRA seal belongs to Gedaliah (5 pages)
IEJ vol. 8 #2 New Light on the MSH Seal Impressions Avigad, N. 1958 Argues for the association of MSH with Mosah instead of Mizpah & includes a page of text drawing an analogy to the interpretation of MMST as an abbreviation for MMSLT
BASOR 304 New Readings of Hezekian Official Seal Impressions Barkay, Gabriel
Vaughn, Andrew G.
November 1996 Revisions for 23 personal seals with excellent photos & line drawings (26 pages, 28 photos, 28 drawings)
BAR vol. 23 #2 No Trained Epigraphist Would Confuse the Two McCarter Jr., P. Kyle Mar/Apr 1997 Single-page defense of the Siloam Inscription's 8th-century authenticity compared to other inscriptions from then (color photo of M2U)
Scripture & Other Artifacts Northern Shephelah in the Iron Age:  Some Issues in Biblical History & Archaeology, The Mazar, Amihai
Greene, Joseph A.
1994 A chapter that includes a 2-page discussion of LMLK jars found at Timnah & Gezer
PEQ vol. 31 Note on the Inscribed Jar-Handle & Weight found at Tell Zakariya Clermont-Ganneau, C. July 1899 Identifies the 2 icons with Egyptian symbols, encourages the city-names theory, establishes the popular reading "To the King.--(city)", & proposes that the jars were related to a military build-up (4 pages plus a paragraph quoting H.V. Hilprecht who proposes dating the seals to the range 300-1 B.C. instead of from Joshua to Saul & identifies the inscriptions with potters)
PEQ vol. 31 Note on the Objects Discovered by Dr. Bliss at Tell Zakariya Sayce, A.H. July 1899 Describes 3 handles (two S2x & one Z2U), reaffirms his geographical name theory but drops his deity theory, & comments on the lack of a definite article in "LMLK" indicating a Phoenician style (about 1 page of relevant content)
PEQ vol. 73 On Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions Discovered at Tell Ed-Duweir (Lachish)--II Diringer, David
Inge, Charles H.
July 1941 Provides a list/description of all seals found at Lachish up to that time; the P.S. by Inge argues for the "Bath LMLK" theory (20 pages, 2 plates of 31 LMLK impressions, 1 plate of personal seal impressions, & Bath LMLK photo)
ASOR Blog On Shopping for Artifacts in the Holy Land:  A Response to Morag M. Kersel Grena, G.M. April 9, 2012 (published online; click here to read it)
Survey of Western Palestine:  Jerusalem, The On the Pottery & Glass Found in the Excavations Chester, Greville
Warren, Charles
Conder, Claude Reignier
1884 Minor additional details beyond the original report (1 page, 2 drawings)
BASOR 313 Palaeographic Dating of Judaean Seals & Its Significance for Biblical Research Vaughn, Andrew G. February 1999 Demonstrates via paleographic analysis how Hebrew inscriptions cannot be precisely dated in the late 8th to late 7th centuries B.C. & includes an exhaustive table containing almost every letter from LMLK personal seals (16 pages of text, 11 photos, 11 tables of script drawings--1 of them extends over 4 pages!)
Alte Orient, Der vol. 30 Palastina und Seine Kultur in Funf Jahrtausenden Thomsen, Peter 1932 German revision of his 1909 book, "Palastina...", with a single-page overview listing Moreseth & Moza instead of MMST (photo of 1 H4L & 2 S2U handles)
ZDPV vol. 66 #2 Palastinischen Krughenkel mit den Konigsstempeln, Die Sellin, Ernst 1943 German article that interprets the inscriptions as "Property of the King", elaborates on the royal estates theory, & dates them from the end of Manasseh to the Babylonian conquest (17 pages)
Israel Philatelist vol. 57 #3, The Part 1 (Flying Scroll) Digging Deeper into the 1948 Festival Stamps Grena, G.M. June 2006 Archaeological update for Israel's first postage stamps in 1948 with an emphasis on the original design (4 pages; Z2U illustration & its matching impression photo; color photo of 2 Z2U handles from the Redondo Beach collection)
Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society vol. XII Petrographical Examination of Pottery Kallner [Amiran], Ruth B.
Vroman, J.
1945-1946 Hebrew report of the first LMLK chemical analysis (5 pages)
PEQ vol. 2 Phoenician Inscription on Jar Handles Warren, Charles 30 September 1870 (click here for complete transcription)
PEQ vol. 25 Phoenician Inscriptions on the Vase Handles Found at Jerusalem, The Sayce July 1893 Interprets LMLK --ST as Melech-Sheth, LMLK SUKE as Melech-Shochoh, LMLK ZF as Melech-Ziph & discusses Canaanite & Egyptian deity names (2 pages)
Revue Archeologique ser. 4, vol. 12 Poids Bilingue Provenant de Palestine Dussaud, Rene July-December 1908 French article that compares plaque-weights with "Palace of the king of Assyria--1 Mina of the King" written in Assyrian cuneiform & "MNE MLK" in Aramean Paleo-Hebrew to LMLK seals as royal measures established after conquering Judah (6 pages; photos of 1 H4L & 2 S2U handles & lion-shaped plaque)
Jewish Encyclopedia vol. 10 Philipson-Samoscz, The Pottery Singer, Isidore
Hirsch, Emil G.
Bliss, Frederick J.
1905 Description of Jewish Period stamps that compares the theories of Bliss & Macalister--Royal Potteries vs. District Centers, respectively (1 page of text with H4L stamp & handle drawings)
BA vol. 35 #4 Practice of Writing in Ancient Israel, The Millard, A.R. December 1972 Only 1 paragraph that alludes to the "fixed capacity" theory (photo of 1 H4L & 2 S2U handles--even though he describes one as "Ziph")
B&S vol. 2 #3 Practice of Writing in Ancient Israel, The Millard, A.R. Summer 1973 Contains the same content & photo as BA vol. 35 #5
Studies in the Iconography of Northwest Semitic Inscribed Seals Pre-Exilic Hebrew Seals:  Iconism vs. Aniconism Sass, Benjamin
Uehlinger, Christoph
1993 About a page of text discussing the LMLK icons with drawings of an H4L & M2U (same as Naveh, 1982)
Studies in the Iconography of Northwest Semitic Inscribed Seals Propos des Sceaux Ouest-Semitiques:  Le Role de l'Iconographie dans l'Attribution d'un Sceau a Une Aire Culturelle ou a un Atelier, A Sass, Benjamin
Uehlinger, Christoph
Parayre, Dominique
1993 French article with one generic drawing of an x2U from Lachish but 64 other drawings of similar 2-winged disc icons
IEJ vol. 34 #2-3 Provenience of the LMLK Jars, The Mommsen, H.
Perlman, I.
Yellin, J.
1984 Provides an excellent, comprehensive LMLK summary along with detailed chemical analysis of LMLK-related pottery from over 100 handles (including Type 484 jars with all seal types, pithoi, & several complete jars) drawing the conclusion that all Type 484 jars were made from clays which are indistinguishable (25 pages including 8 tables)
Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 4 (O-Z) Qasile, Tell Avi-Yonah, Michael
Stern, Ephraim
Dothan, Trude
Dunayevsky, I.
1978 Describes the incised LMLK ostracon & includes a photo
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 4 (Pet-Z), The Qasile, Tell Stern, Ephraim
Dothan, Trude
Dunayevsky, Imanuel
1993 Describes the incised LMLK ostracon & includes a photo
Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 4 (O-Z) Ramat Rahel Avi-Yonah, Michael
Stern, Ephraim
Aharoni, Y.
1978 Briefly mentions LMLK handles excavated at Ramat Rahel & provides a photo of an H2D & #687-22a personal seal on the same handle
New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land vol. 4 (Pet-Z), The Ramat Rahel Stern, Ephraim
Aharoni, Yohanan
1993 Briefly mentions LMLK handles excavated at Ramat Rahel & provides a good photo of an H2D & #687-22a personal seal on the same handle
JBS issue 1:2 Reading Religious Artifacts:  The Shrine Room at Judahite Tell Halif Jacobs, Paul Apr/Jun 2001 Provides details about 2 restored "lamelek type" storage jars
Catholic Biblical Quarterly vol. 64 #3 Reassessment of Hezekiah's Reform in Light of Jar Handles & Iconographic Evidence, A Swanson, Kristin A. July 2002 About 9 pages of text exploring the relevance of LMLK icons to the report in 2Kings of Hezekiah breaking the serpent pole of Moses, all being Egyptian symbols, their disuse indicating submission to Assyria
RB vol. 79 #3 Recension:  "Die Konigs-Stempel" par P. Welten Lang, Bernhard July 1972 French review of Welten's book that compliments him for his typology (& demonstrates its usefulness for future publications) & presents his main subjects in a mostly objective manner but points out the difficulty of dating based on paleography (4 pages)
VT vol. 25 #3 Remarques sur la Datation des Estampilles "LMLK" Lemaire, Andre July 1975 French article that points out the paleographic significance of the last letter of SUKE in the S4L seals, which allows Diringer's Class II to co-exist (if not predate) Class I to as early as Uzziah's reign in the middle of the 8th century BC
BAR vol. 28 #1 Return to Aroer:  A Trip Through the Ages with the Ageless Avraham Biran Feldman, Steven Jan/Feb 2002 Color photo of a Z2U handle; no significant text
IEJ vol. 20 #3-4 Review of P. Welten's "Die Konigs-Stempel" Aharoni, Y. 1970 While complimenting the exhaustive content, Aharoni criticizes Welten's division of 2-winged icons & contradictory interpretation of archaeological reports--especially relating to Josiah's reign (2 pages)
Harper's New Monthly Magazine vol. 43 #254 [Review of] "The Recovery of Jerusalem" Abbott, Lyman July 1871 Mentions Warren's handles with Phoenician characters & includes his 2 drawings
PEQ vol. 80 Reviews & Notices:  Tell En-Nasbeh Tufnell, Olga July-October 1948 A laudatory review of the McCown/Wampler books with a comparison of seals found at Lachish (3 pages)
IEJ vol. 45 #4 Rosette Stamp Seal Impressions from Ancient Judah Cahill, Jane M. 1995 The landmark study of jars resembling Type 484 including a comprehensive classification system & frequent comparisons to LMLK jars (23 pages including 15 photos showing 12 rosette handles & 2 rosette jars, drawings of handle cross-sections, corpus chart, distribution map, & stratification table)
IEJ vol. 54 #2 Rosette-stamped Handles:  Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Yellin, Joseph
Cahill, Jane M.
2004 Provides results of a chemical analysis of Rosette handles, & compares them to LMLK Type 484 handles & LMLK pithoi (21 pages including 4 tables & 2 graphs)
BASOR 201 Royal Israelite Seal (?) & the Royal Jar Handle Stamps (part 2), A Tushingham, A.D. February 1971 Argues for the theories that the 4-winged icon was a northern kingdom symbol, the 2-winged icon was a southern kingdom symbol, both evolved from Egyptian & Assyrian designs, & all LMLK stamps are from Josiah's reign (13 pages)
BA vol. 12 #4 Royal Jar-Handle Stamps of Ancient Judah, The Diringer, David December 1949 An exhaustive summary of LMLK discoveries, early theories, paleographic chart/analysis, & corpus of 550 (17 pages, 3 jar photos, 14 small impression photos)
TA vol. 37 #1 Royal Judahite Jar Handles:  Reconsidering the Chronology of the lmlk Stamp Impressions Lipschits, Oded
Sergi, Omer
Koch, Ido
June 2010 Proposed chronological division based on seal types (26 pages & a figure showing 19 seal drawings)
BASOR 223 Royal Judean Storage Jars & Private Seal Impressions Ussishkin, David October 1976 An excellent presentation of the first 2 reconstructed Lachish jars (10457 & 10074) with LMLK & personal seals on handles of the same jar, plus an investigation of similar handle groups found in the original Lachish excavations & at Tell Beit Mirsim (13 pages, 21 photos, 7 drawings)
BAR vol. 32 #5 Royal Palace, Royal Portrait?:  The Tanatalizing Possibilities of Ramat Rahel Barkay, Gabriel Sep/Oct 2006 Argues for MMST = Ramat Rahel (photo of M2D handle & painted shard, theoretically depicting King Hezekiah)
BAR vol. 23 #5 Royal Rosettes Fit for a King Cahill, Jane M. Sep/Oct 1997 Primarily discusses rosettes on stamped jar handles but also shows photos of them in Hittite/Assyrian art (about 5 pages of text, photo of H4L, color photo of M2U)
HTR vol. 64 #2-3 Royal Stamps & the Kingdom of Josiah, The Lance, H. Darrell April-July 1971 An excellent analysis of the LMLK handles excavated from Gibeon, Ramat Rahel, Lachish (the bulk of the discussion), Gezer, & Jerusalem concluding in support of King Josiah's usage over King Hezekiah's by believing Lachish 3 was not destroyed by Sennacherib (18 pages)
BASOR 179 Royal Weights & Measures Rainey, A.F. October 1965 Presents an Assyrian analogy for interpreting LMLK inscriptions as "for the king from (H, M, S, Z)" (2 pages)
Syria vol. 6 Samarie Au Temps d'Achab Dussaud, Rene 1925 French article that mentions Judean seals relative to the Gezer tablet, Samarian ostraca, & Siloam inscription (2 pages plus paleography table; photos of 2 H4L, 1 M2U, 1 S4L, 2 S2U handles from the PEF)
Journal Asiatique ser. 8 vol. 1 Sceaux et Cachets Clermont-Ganneau, M. Charles Feb/Mar 1883 French article that analyzes 6 of Warren's original handles, refutes the theory that they name kings or offerings to the pagan deity, & proposes that they name potters (2 pages)
Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, The Seals & Scarabs Tufnell, O.
Buttrick, George Arthur
1962 Brief summary of royal symbols & stamps used by wine exporters (H4C, H4L, & H2U stamp photos)
Journal for Semitics vol. 15 #2 Seals of Jezebel & Other Women in Authority Korpel, Marjo C.A. 2006 Analyzes an unprovenanced personal seal inscribed "YZBL" with Egyptian icons (photos of an H2D & S4L; only 1 page of LMLK content, but footnote 36 on p. 361 is the first reference to this website in a formal scientific publication)
PEQ vol. 31 Second Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya Bliss, F.J. April 1899 Interprets the first LMLK HBRN handle as "King of Hebron" & dates them between Caleb's conquest & King Saul (2 pages plus drawing of H4L)
PEQ vol. 32 Second Report on the Excavations at Tell Ej-Judeideh Bliss, F.J. July 1900 Presents a classification system based on 37 handles found at Moresheth-Gath & the first comprehensive analysis of the handles, symbols, inscriptions, & possible dates (13 pages; drawings of 8 impressions)
VT vol. 29 #1 Sennacherib's Campaign to Judah & the Date of the LMLK Stamps Na'aman, N. January 1979 Presents solid, logical evidence for positively dating all LMLK impressions to King Hezekiah's reign instead of King Josiah's (26 pages)
PEQ vol. 13 Some Remarks on the Interpretation of the Impressions on the Vase Handles Found at the Foot of the Temple Wall Greene, J. Baker October 1881 Analyzes the inscriptions in consideration of Molech-worship & proposes that they are compound deity names (i.e., LMLK ZF = "To the Lord (Molech) who watches" (7 pages)
DigSight Issue 15 Southern Surveys Khirbet Shuweikeh--Tel Socoh Hasel, Michael G. Fall 2010 Description of a surface survey (1 page; color photos of H2D & Personal handles)
Archaeometry vol. 7 Spectrographic Investigation of Jar Handles Bearing the "Royal" Stamp of Judah, A Millett, A.
Pritchard, J.B.
Ralph, E.K.
1964 Compares chemicals in LMLK handles from Gibeon & Nasbeh with GBON fragments from Gibeon (2 pages of text plus 2 charts & 2 tables)
Anchor Bible Dictionary vol. 6 (Si-Z) Stamps, Royal Jar Handle Freedman, David Noel
Lance, H. Darrell
1992 An excellent 1-page overview of the mystery with drawings of an H4L & M2D
BASOR Supplement No. 23:  Preliminary Reports of ASOR-Sponsored Excavations 1981-83 Tel Batash (Timnah) Excavations, Second Preliminary Report (1981-1983) Kelm, George L.
Mazar, Amihai
Rast, Walter E.
1985 Brief overview of LMLK jars & handles found in Building 737 & a proposal to explain jars & handles found in the 7th-century stratum with Rosette jars (2 pages)
Excavations & Surveys in Israel 1988/89 vol. 7-8 Tel Yizre'el 1987/1988 Yogev, O. 1990 Photo & drawing of M2D found at Jezreel
ZDPV vol. 118 #2 Temptation to Identify:  Jerusalem, MMST, & the LMLK Jar Stamps Kletter, Raz 2002 Reviews the reasons for locating MMST near Hebron & proposes 2 phases of usage (one pre-revolt & one post-revolt) but then gives 5 arguments against it (10 pages including 2 maps)
AASOR vol. 45 Third Campaign at Tell el-Ful:  The Excavations of 1964, The Freedman, David Noel
Lapp, Nancy L.
1981 Discusses all Gibeah handles (1 page) & includes photos/drawings of 4 (H2D, M2D, M2T, & x2x)
PEQ vol. 31 Third Report on the Excavations at Tell Zakariya Bliss, F.J. July 1899 Discusses 12 handles found at Azekah & interprets their icons & inscriptions in conjunction with the original 6 found at Jerusalem (3 pages plus drawings of 9 impressions)
BASOR 248 Three Seasons of Excavations at Tel Batash--Biblical Timnah Kelm, George L.
Mazar, Amihai
Fall 1982 About a page of text describing 8 LMLK handles & 1 personal seal (photos of an x4L & M2U)
Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 37 Timnah (Tel Batash) Final Reports I:  Stratigraphy & Architecture Mazar, Amihai 1997 A chapter of archaeological text about "The LMLK Jars Building" with several photos showing various rooms as they were being excavated (about 6 pages & 12 photos)
Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 42 Timnah (Tel Batash) II:  The Finds from the First Millennium BCE, Plates Mazar, Amihai
Panitz-Cohen, Nava
2001 Companion drawings for the "Text" book of all the jars & handles recovered
Qedem:  Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology 42 Timnah (Tel Batash) II:  The Finds from the First Millennium BCE, Text Mazar, Amihai
Panitz-Cohen, Nava
2001 Comprehensive discussion of all the jars & handles recovered (9 pages of text, 1 jar photo, 12 impression photos)
TA vol. 17 #1 Two Ceramic Assemblages from Lachish Levels III & II Zimhoni, Orna 1990 A comprehensive, 50-page study of pottery--mostly storage jars--that can be associated with the most significant Assyrian & Babylonian attacks; only about 2 pages of specific LMLK content (drawings of 3 jars & a photo of Jar 10616) but also an interesting page about lids/stoppers
IEJ vol. 40 #4 Two Hebrew 'Fiscal' Bullae Avigad, N. 1990 Detailed presentation/analysis of the Eltolad LMLK bulla (4 pages, front & profile photos)
JNES vol. 10 #4 Two Hebrew Ostraca from Tell Qasile Maisler, B. October 1951 Presents a LMLK ostracon (1 photo & 1 page of text--the other ostracon was written by a different person about Ophir gold for Beth Huron & does not include the word LMLK)
VT vol. 11 #3 Villes de Juda au Temps d'Ozias, Les Feuillet, R. July 1961 French article that sees paleographic evidence to date the x4C seals to Uzziah's reign & uses the Qumran "2 Seah 7 Log" jar to support the Royal Potteries theory (4 pages plus Diringer's 1949 paleography chart)
B&S vol. 18 #1 What Are lmlk Stamps and What Were They Used For? Grena, G.M. Winter 2005 Overview of theories with an emphasis on the possible relation between the seals & the men of King Hezekiah mentioned in Proverbs 25 (5 pages of text, color photos of G2T, H2D, M2U, S4L, Z4CI handles, color map showing LMLK sites over 12-tribe territory, drawings of all 21 types)
BAR vol. 31 #4 Why Lachish Matters:  A Major Site Gets the Publication It Deserves King, Philip J. Jul/Aug 2005 Presents an excellent, comprehensive overview of Lachish data, but erroneously states all LMLK handles came from Level 3 (color photos of H4L & S2U stamps)
BASOR 245 Wine from the Royal Vineyards Rainey, A.F. Winter 1982 Argues for LMLK jars being from King Hezekiah's 4 royal wineries in the Judean hill country (5 pages)
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This page was created on April 6, 2002, & last updated on April 15, 2012